Child Development : Principles & Perspectives
Author(s): Greg Cook; Joan Littlefield Cook
Child Development: Principles and Perspectives, 2E shows students the power of developmental research in practice!
The topically-organized Child Development, Second Edition combines streamlined coverage with an application-driven active learning system. Cook and Cook focus students on how they can promote positive child development by putting the science to work outside of the classroom.
The approach recognizes that the majority of students enrolled in the child development course will likely interact in the future with children as educators, medical professionals, social workers, counselors, or as parents. For this reason, the authors punctuate each chapter with numerous applications, including interviews with a real parent (or child) and a real professional who in some way depends upon child development research.
Child Development is supported by the new and improved MyDevelopmentLab, an exciting learning and assessment tool designed to increase student success in the classroom, and provide instructors with every resource needed to teach and administer their course. The latest version of MyDevelopmentLab features Virtual Child. This interactive simulation offers students the opportunity to act as a parent and raise a virtual child.
New To This Edition
NEW- MyDevelopmentLab is an exciting learning and assessment tool designed to increase student success in the classroom, and provide instructors with every resource needed to teach and administer their course. The latest version of MyDevelopmentLab also features Virtual Child.
NEW- Virtual Child: This interactive simulation offers students the opportunity to act as a parent and raise a virtual child. By making decisions about specific scenarios, students raise their child from birth to age 18 and see how their own decisions and parenting actions affect their child over time. At each age, students are given feedback about the various milestones their child has attained. As in real life, certain “unplanned” events may randomly be presented for students. Key stages of the child’s development will include personalized feedback. Virtual Child is available as a stand alone product or as part of MyDevelopmentLab.
Chapters changes include:
In response to reviewer feedback, the previously separate chapter on atypical development (previously Ch. 14) which covered giftedness, behavioral, emotional, developmental, and learning problems, and abuse and neglect, has been broken up and the content distributed throughout the text where most appropriate.
- Child Abuse & Neglect was moved to Ch. 4, Physical Development: Body, Brain, and Perception
- Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention problems and ADHD were moved to Ch. 6, Information Processing: The Development of Memory and Thought
- Mental Retardation, Gifted and Talented Children, Communication and Learning Disorders were moved to Chapter 7, Intelligence and Academic Skills.
- Conduct Disorders were moved to Chapter 11, Moral Development.
- Depression, Suicide and Resilience are now found in Ch. 9, Attachment, Temperament, and Emotion
A new standalone chapter on Moral Development (chapter 10) has been added, separate from chapter 9, Becoming Who We Are: Development of Self and Gender.
Cutting-edge research topics have been added or expanded throughout. For example, the new edition integrates: new coverage of probabilistic epigenesis (chapter 2); new research on health and safety issues (chapter 4); recent sociocultural views of cognitive development (chapter 5); research on autism spectrum disorders (chapter 6); new assessment approaches (chapter 7); new research on bilingualism and social and cultural dialects (chapter 8); the development of sexual orientation (chapter 9); new research on aggressive behavior, risk-taking behavior and positive youth development (chapter 11); adolescent romantic relationships (chapter 12); research on the family system, sibling relationships, grandparents and the extended family (chapter 13); research on video game playing and Internet use (chapter 14).
A new critical thinking feature, Thinking Critically, replaces the Your Perspective boxes from the first edition.
Approximately 500 new references have been added throughout.
Roughly one-third of the Personal Perspective and Professional Perspective interviews have been replaced. Every effort was made to provide both a more diverse group of interviewees as well as to include more interviewees from the education field.
Data, figures, and tables have been updated throughout.
Features and Benefits
Are you looking to move away from an encyclopedic textbook to a text that balances science with application? Are your students interested in how child development research might be useful to them in their future lives?
- Accomplished teachers and active researchers, Greg and Joan Cook are both on top of the latest research in the field and intimately familiar with what students want out of a child development course. The authors' guiding philosophy is to give the reader a complete but digestible synthesis of the latest research in the field and also tie the material to the interests of the reader.
- Applications are emphasized throughout, and real people in real situations are introduced in every chapter.
- A Professional Perspective, an interview with a real-life professional who, in some way, relies upon child development research findings to do their job, allows students to read about the challenges these professionals face and the unique ways they approach these challenges. This feature may also open students eyes to previously unknown career paths.
- A Personal Perspective, an interview with real parents and/or children, connects chapter content to real-life childrearing issues.
- A Social Policy Perspective highlights the ways programs, laws, regulations, and other governing aspects of society can affect children positively and/or negatively.
How do you get students to think critically about and make a personal connection with child development science?
- Every component of the Cook and Cook learning system is designed to promote critical thinking and personal reflection, so that students can move past a superficial understanding of the material and make it part of their lives.
- A chapter-opening case immediately asks students to put themselves in the shoes of someone who is facing a child development-related challenge.
- Think About... questions in the margins ask students to provide advice or solutions to the chapter-opening case based upon their understanding of the material they've just finished reading.
- End of the chapter Thinking Back... notes offer the authors' suggestions for how the chapter content could be used to advise the characters described in introductory case.
- Thinking Critically, found in the margins throughout the text, encourage elaborative rehearsal and help students to connect with the material on a deeper, more personal level.
- Perspective boxes focusing on parenting, professional and social policy applications are accompanied by probing questions that prompt students to think about concepts from different perspectives.
How do you help students to become better active learners?
- Cook and Cook’s active learning system is built upon learning theory principles, with each component being visually linked to the others for navigational ease and reinforcement.
- Schema activating preview questions at the start of each major section orient students' thinking toward the material to follow.
- Let's Review questions appear at the end of each major section, with answers provided below and upside down, so in just a few seconds students can receive quick feedback on their understanding of the material.
- A Chapter Review in a question-and-answer format concludes each chapter, reminding students about the main questions addressed in the chapter and offering a quick summary of the most important concepts, organized by chapter subsection.
- Thinking Critically questions in the margins facilitate elaborative rehearsal.
- A running glossary appears in the margin, providing students with easy-to-access definitions of key terms.
- MyDevelopmentLab (www.mydevelopmentlab.com) promotes active learning through interactive animations and simulations, videos with linked assessment questions, and a unique Study Plan feature that adapts to students' performance on chapter Pre-Tests to help them focus their efforts on the areas where their knowledge is weakest.
Is diversity coverage an important consideration for you?
- While tackling the challenge of describing the commonalities of development, the authors carefully integrate research studies that capture statistics and results from many cultures, and discuss the influences of culture and ethnicity on many aspects of development.
- Interviewees for the Personal Perspective and Professional Perspective boxes hail from a wide variety of cultural, ethnic, geographic and professional backgrounds, so that all students might “see themselves” in the text.
Are your students asking for additional help learning and applying the concepts found in the textbook?
- Child Development is supported by MyDevelopmentLab, an online teaching and learning system featuring audio, video, animations, and simulations organized around an online version of the textbook. MyDevelopmentLab is accompanied by powerful assessment tools, including an adaptive Study Plan, that promote better, more efficient student learning. Visit www.mydevelopmentlab.com for more information.
- For those looking for extra practice in a portable, off-line format, the Grade Aid study guide offers Before You Read... tips for preparing for the material in the chapter, As You Read... activities to help students retain the information they are gathering, After You Read... assessments, and When You Have Finished... activities that take students deeper into the material.
Table of Contents
EXPLORING CHILD DEVELOPMENT
DEFINING THE FIELD
What Drives Development? Nature, and Nurture, and Reciprocal Relationships
THEORIES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT
What Is a Theory, and Why Are Theories Useful?
Behavioral and Social Learning Theories
Contextual and Systems Theories
USING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD: RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Descriptive Research Methods
Correlational Research Methods: Measuring Associations
Experimental Research Methods: Determining Cause and Effect
Methods for Assessing Development
Ethics in Research with Children
APPLICATIONS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND CAREERS RELATED TO CHILDREN
Practical Applications of Child Development Research
Personal Perspective “Meet First-Time Expectant Parents”
Social Policy Perspective: “Every Day in America”
Careers Related to Children
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a School Social Worker”
HEREDITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
GENES AND HUMAN REPRODUCTION
Genes and the Magical Four-Letter Code
Social Policy Perspective: “Protecting the Genetic Privacy of Citizens”
Human Reproduction and Cell Division
Personal Perspective: “Meet a Couple Who Used Artificial Insemination ”
HOW TRAITS AND GENETIC ABNORMALITIES ARE INHERITED
Prenatal Screening and Genetic Testing
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Genetic Counselor”
HOW GENES AND ENVIRONMENTS INTERACT
Range of Reaction
Niche-Picking: I Gotta Be Me ...
Probabilistic Epigenesis: Activating Your Genes
BEHAVIOR GENETICS: MEASURING THE HERITABILITY OF TRAITS
Behavior Genetics, Heritability, and Shared and Nonshared Environments
How Is Heritability Estimated?
Heritability of Complex Characteristics
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH
Stages of Prenatal Development
TERATOGENS: HEALTH RISKS FOR THE BABY
Personal Perspective: “Meet a Family Who Adopted a Child with FAS”
Social Policy Perspective: “The Case of Malissa Ann Crawley”
The Role of Fathers
THE PROCESS OF BIRTH
Stages of Birth
Options in Giving Birth: Choices and Alternatives
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Certified Nurse—Midwife.”
Drugs during Labor and Delivery
The Partner’s Role: Helping During Birth
Birthing Complications: Something Isn’t Right
Here’s the Newborn!
INFANTS AT RISK: PREMATURITY AND INFANT MORTALITY
What Is Prematurity?
Prenatal Care: Having a Healthy Baby
BECOMING A FAMILY: PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS TO HAVING A NEWBORN
The Transition to Parenthood
Becoming the Big Brother or Sister
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: BODY, BRAIN, AND PERCEPTION
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR COORDINATION
Reflexes: The Infant’s First Coordinated Movements
Voluntary Movements: The Motor Milestones
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Physical Therapist”
Nutrition and Eating-Related Problems
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
Structure of the Brain and Nervous System
Forming the Brain and Nervous System
The Role of Experience in Brain Development
Social Policy Perspective: “Can Mozart Stimulate Neural Connections in Infants?”
Neural Plasticity and Sensitive Periods
Larger Developmental Patterns in the Brain
Robert Fantz and Visual Preferences
Perception of Smell and Taste
HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES
Childhood Deaths and Safety Issues
Child Abuse and Neglect
Personal Perspective: One Survivor’s Story
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGETIAN AND SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWS
PIAGET’S CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Piaget as a Child Prodigy
Constructivism and Interaction with the Environment
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Stage 1: Sensorimotor Thought (Birth to 2 Years)
Personal Perspective: “Where Did It Go?”
Stage 2: Preoperational Thought (2 to 7 Years)
Stage 3: Concrete Operational Thought (7 to 11 Years)
Stage 4: Formal Operational Thought (Approximately Age 12 and Above)
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus:Meet a Constructivist Teacher”
VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Vygotsky’s Background: The Sociocultural Context for a New Theory
The Role of Speech and Language
Mediation: With a Little Help from Your Friends
The Zone of Proximal Development
Social Policy Perspective: “When Should Children Start School?”
Scaffolding: Support during Learning
RECENT SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Thinking as Socially Shared Cognition: Two Heads Are Better than One
CHAPTER 6: INFORMATION PROCESSING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY AND THOUGHT
INFORMATION PROCESSING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
What Is the Information-Processing Approach?
Processing Capacity and Efficiency
Attention and Attention Defecit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Personal Perspective: “Meet a Child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”
Two Models of Memory: Stores and Networks
Other Characteristics of Memory Development
Social Policy Perspective: “Children’s Eyewitness Testimony”
DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE AND STRATEGIES
Professional Perspective: “Teaching Memory Strategies in the Classroom”
METACOGNITION AND THE CHILD’S DEVELOPING THEORY OF MIND
Metacognition and Metamemory
Theory of Mind
Autism and Autistic Spectrum Disorders
CURRENT APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Computational Models of Thought
Fuzzy Trace Theory
Information Processing: Where Does It Stand?
Intelligence and Academic Skills
Theories of Intelligence
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
What about Creativity?
History of Intelligence Testing
Intelligence Testing Today
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a School Psychologist”
Extremes of Intelligence
Ethnic Differences and Questions about Cultural Bias
Social Policy Perspective: “Ethnicity and IQ”
DEVELOPING Academic Skills
Personal Perspective: “Meet a Literacy Volunteer”
Problems with Academics: Communication and Learning Disorders
What Is Language?
Characteristics of Language
The Structure of Language
Theories of Language Development
Learning Theory: Language as a Learned Skill
Nativist Theory: Born to Talk
Interaction Theories: Cognitive and Social Interactionist Approaches
Development of Language: What Happens When?
Infant Communication: How Language Starts
From First Words to Conversation: Language in Early Childhood
Perfecting Communication: Language in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a School Speech—Language Therapist”
Issues in Language Development
Bilingualism: Learning Two Languages
Personal Perspective: “Meet a Bilingual Family”
Social Policy Perspective: “Bilingual Education”
Social and Cultural Dialects
Attachment, Temperament, and Emotion
The Story of Attachment Research
Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
Parent, Child, and Cultural Factors in Attachment
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Preschool Teacher”
Fathers, Day Care, and Attachment
Social Policy Perspective: “Parental Leave Policies in the United States and Other Nations”
Early Attachment and Long-Term Outcomes
Other Measures of Attachment
Types of Temperaments
Personal Perspective: “Meet the Parent of a Difficult Child”
Other Approaches to Temperament
Appreciating Temperamental Differences
Infants’ Responses to Emotions
Childhood Emotional Development
Depression, Suicide, and Resilient Children
Tying It Together: Attachment, Temperament, and Emotional Development
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF AND GENDER
WHO AM I? THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF
What Is “Self”?
Changes in Self-Representation across Ages
Personal Perspective: “Developing an Ethnic Identity”
SELF-EVALUATION AND SELF-REGULATION
Evaluating the Self
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a High School Guidance Counselor”
SEXUAL MATURATION AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Early and Late Maturation
The Development of Sexual Orientation
THEORIES AND ISSUES IN GENDER DEVELOPMENT
Similarities and Differences Between Boys and Girls
Social Policy Perspective: “Single Sex Schools: Increasing Opportunity or a Return to Educational Segregation?”
Theories of Gender Development: A Brief Survey
The Development of Gender Concepts and Sex-Typed Behaviors
MORAL REASONING AND EMOTIONS
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
Guilt and Empathy: The Roles of Emotions in Moral Development
MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGGRESSION
Juvenile Delinquency and Gangs
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Juvenile Probation Officer”
MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND RISKY BEHAVIORS
Substance Use and Abuse
Teen Sexual Activity
Social Policy Perspective: “The Sex Education Debate”
POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
What is Positive Youth Development?
Prosocial Reasoning and Behavior
Religiosity and Spirituality
Personal Perspective: “Through Our Eyes”
How Can Adults Help Foster Positive Youth Development?
PEERS, PLAY, AND POPULARITY
Peer Relations, Friendships, AND DATING
Social Relations among Infants and Toddlers
Friendships during the Preschool and Childhood Years
Gender Segregation among Childhood Friends
Friends and Peers in Adolescence
Transition to Dating and Romantic Relationships
The Social Levels of Play: Parten’s Classic Study
Types of Play from Infancy through Adolescence
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Toy Company Executive”
Personal Perspective: “Play at Different Ages”
Cultural Differences in Play
POPULAR AND UNPOPULAR CHILDREN
Categories of Popular and Unpopular Children
A Social Cognition Model of Peer Relations
Consequences of Peer Rejection
Social Policy Perspective: “How Should We Deal with Aggressive Students?”
The Family System
Parenting: Best Practices for Raising Children
Discipline: What’s a Parent to Do?
Social Policy Perspective: “Should Parents Be Licensed?”
Personal Perspective: “Carrots or Sticks?”
Mothers, Fathers, and Co-Parenting
Grandparents and the Family System
Changing Family Structures
Marital Conflict and Divorce
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Psychotherapist Who Works with Divorced
Parents and Children”
Starting Over: Stepfamilies
Families with Lesbian or Gay Parents
Ethnic Minority Families
CHILD CARE: WHO’S WATCHING THE KIDS?
Nonparental Care and Its Effects
Child Care Quality
Self-Care: Latchkey Kids
Schools, Media, and Culture
Schools and Development
Early Childhood Education and Kindergarten Readiness
Social Policy Perspective: “Project Head Start: What Lies Ahead?”
Effective Schooling: What Does It Take?
Cross-National and Ethnic Differences in Schooling
Personal Perspective: “Meet a Teen With a Music Talent”
How Can We Prevent Problems in Schooling?
Children and the Media
What Kinds of Media Are Children Using?
What Are the Effects of Media?
State of the Art: Newer Forms of Media
Explaining Media’s Effects
Professional Perspective: “Career Focus: Meet a Marketing Executive”
Cultural Contexts for Development
Cultural Orientations: Individualism and Collectivism
What’s the Neighborhood Like? Urban and Rural Poverty
Coming to America: Immigration and Acculturation
Explaining Culture’s Influence
Joan Littlefield Cook teaches in the Psychology Department at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. As an undergraduate she majored in Psychology at Tennessee Technological University. She earned a Ph.D. in Psychology and Human Development at Vanderbilt University. Over the last 18 years she has taught courses related to child and adolescent development, educational psychology, and cognitive psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Middle Tennessee State University. Her classes have ranged from large lecture courses (with 300 or more students) to small seminars. Students have always appreciated her knowledge of the field and her ability to present information in a way that is useful, motivating, and friendly. In fact, the Student Association at the University of Wisconsin-Madison voted her as one of their most outstanding professors. Joan's research is on mathematical problem solving and cognitive development. She and her colleagues have published paperrs in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Intelligence, Cogition & Instruction, Memory & Cognition, the Gifted Child Quarterly, and the Journal of Experimental Psychology. She has co-authored two other books and numerous instructional materials.
Greg Cook also teaches Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. He majored in Psychology at the University of Dayton and later received his Ph.D. in Psychology at Vanderbilt University. For the last 18 years he has taught courses in child development, research methods, statistics, and related topics at Whitewater as well as at the Madison and Richland Center campuses in the University of Wisconsin system and Vanderbilt University. At Whitewater, he received a departmental award for excellence in teaching. Students consistently comment on his ability to present difficult information in a clear and understandable way. His research in cognitive development ahs been published in scholarly journals such as Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. He also collaborated with colleagues in the College of Education on studies published in the Journal of Experimental Education, the Journal of Research & Development in Education, and the Journal of Reading Education.
- : 9780205494064
- : Pearson Higher Education & Professional Group
- : Pearson Higher Education & Professional Group
- : 1.25
- : February 2008
- : 2.2 Centimeters X 21.1 Centimeters X 27.5 Centimeters
- : books
- : Greg Cook; Joan Littlefield Cook
- : Paperback
- : English
- : 305.231
- : 624